A Python package for integrating CARTO maps, analysis, and data services into data science workflows.

Python data analysis workflows often rely on the de facto standards pandas and Jupyter notebooks. Integrating CARTO into this workflow saves data scientists time and energy by not having to export datasets as files or retain multiple copies of the data. Instead, CARTOframes give the ability to communicate reproducible analysis while providing the ability to gain from CARTO’s services like hosted, dynamic or static maps and Data Observatory augmentation.


  • Write pandas DataFrames to CARTO tables
  • Read CARTO tables and queries into pandas DataFrames
  • Create customizable, interactive CARTO maps in a Jupyter notebook
  • Interact with CARTO’s Data Observatory
  • Use CARTO’s spatially-enabled database for analysis

Common Uses

  • Visualize spatial data programmatically as matplotlib images or embedded interactive maps
  • Perform cloud-based spatial data processing using CARTO’s analysis tools
  • Extract, transform, and Load (ETL) data using the Python ecosystem for getting data into and out of CARTO
  • Data Services integrations using CARTO’s Data Observatory and other Data Services APIs

More info


cartoframes users must have a CARTO API key for most cartoframes functionality. For example, writing DataFrames to an account, reading from private tables, and visualizing data on maps all require an API key. CARTO provides API keys for education and nonprofit uses, among others. Request access at API key access is also given through GitHub’s Student Developer Pack.

Install Instructions

To install cartoframes on your machine, do the following to install the latest version:

$ pip install cartoframes

cartoframes is continuously tested on Python versions 2.7, 3.5, and 3.6. It is recommended to use cartoframes in Jupyter Notebooks (pip install jupyter). See the example usage section below or notebooks in the examples directory for using cartoframes in that environment.

Virtual Environment

Using virtualenv

Make sure your virtualenv package is installed and up-to-date. See the official Python packaging page for more information.

To setup cartoframes and Jupyter in a virtual environment:

$ virtualenv venv
$ source venv/bin/activate
(venv) $ pip install cartoframes jupyter
(venv) $ jupyter notebook

Then create a new notebook and try the example code snippets below with tables that are in your CARTO account.

Using pipenv

Alternatively, pipenv provides an easy way to manage virtual environments. The steps below are:

  1. Create a virtual environment with Python 3.4+ (recommended instead of Python 2.7)
  2. Install cartoframes and Jupyter (optional) into the virtual environment
  3. Enter the virtual environment
  4. Launch a Jupyter notebook server
$ pipenv --three
$ pipenv install cartoframes jupyter
$ pipenv shell

Next, run a Python kernel by typing $ python, $ jupyter notebook, or however you typically run Python.

Native pip

If you install packages at a system level, you can install cartoframes with:

$ pip install cartoframes

Example usage

Data workflow

Get table from CARTO, make changes in pandas, sync updates with CARTO:

import cartoframes
# `base_url`s are of the form `http://{username}` for most users
cc = cartoframes.CartoContext(base_url='',

# read a table from your CARTO account to a DataFrame
df ='brooklyn_poverty_census_tracts')

# do fancy pandas operations (add/drop columns, change values, etc.)
df['poverty_per_pop'] = df['poverty_count'] / df['total_population']

# updates CARTO table with all changes from this session
cc.write(df, 'brooklyn_poverty_census_tracts', overwrite=True)

Write an existing pandas DataFrame to CARTO.

import pandas as pd
import cartoframes
df = pd.read_csv('acadia_biodiversity.csv')
cc = cartoframes.CartoContext(base_url=BASEURL,
cc.write(df, 'acadia_biodiversity')

Map workflow

The following will embed a CARTO map in a Jupyter notebook, allowing for custom styling of the maps driven by TurboCARTO and CARTOColors. See the CARTOColors wiki for a full list of available color schemes.

from cartoframes import Layer, BaseMap, styling
cc = cartoframes.CartoContext(base_url=BASEURL,
                     color={'column': 'simpson_index',
                            'scheme': styling.tealRose(5)}),
                     color={'column': 'bird_id',
                            'scheme': styling.vivid(10)})],


Legends are under active development. See for more information. To try out that code, install cartoframes as:

pip install git+

Data Observatory

Interact with CARTO’s Data Observatory:

import cartoframes
cc = cartoframes.CartoContext(BASEURL, APIKEY)

# total pop, high school diploma (normalized), median income, poverty status (normalized)
# See Data Observatory catalog for codes:
data_obs_measures = [{'numer_id': 'us.census.acs.B01003001'},
                     {'numer_id': 'us.census.acs.B15003017',
                      'normalization': 'predenominated'},
                     {'numer_id': 'us.census.acs.B19013001'},
                     {'numer_id': 'us.census.acs.B17001002',
                      'normalization': 'predenominated'},]
df ='transactions', data_obs_measures)

CARTO Credential Management

Typical usage

The most common way to input credentials into cartoframes is through the CartoContext, as below. Replace {your_user_name} with your CARTO username and {your_api_key} with your API key, which you can find at http://{your_user_name}

from cartoframes import CartoContext
cc = CartoContext(

You can also set your credentials using the Credentials class:

from cartoframes import Credentials, CartoContext
cc = CartoContext(
    creds=Credentials(key='{your_api_key}', username='{your_user_name}')

Save/update credentials for later use

from cartoframes import Credentials, CartoContext
creds = Credentials(username='eschbacher', key='abcdefg')  # save credentials for later use (not dependent on Python session)

Once you save your credentials, you can get started in future sessions more quickly:

from cartoframes import CartoContext
cc = CartoContext()  # automatically loads credentials if previously saved

CARTOframes Functionality


class cartoframes.context.CartoContext(base_url=None, api_key=None, creds=None, session=None, verbose=0)

CartoContext class for authentication with CARTO and high-level operations such as reading tables from CARTO into dataframes, writing dataframes to CARTO tables, creating custom maps from dataframes and CARTO tables, and augmenting data using CARTO’s Data Observatory. Future methods will interact with CARTO’s services like routing, geocoding, and isolines, PostGIS backend for spatial processing, and much more.

Manages connections with CARTO for data and map operations. Modeled after SparkContext.

There are two ways of authenticating against a CARTO account:

  1. Setting the base_url and api_key directly in CartoContext. This method is easier.:

    cc = CartoContext(
  2. By passing a Credentials instance in CartoContext’s creds keyword argument. This method is more flexible.:

    from cartoframes import Credentials
    creds = Credentials(user='eschbacher', key='abcdefg')
    cc = CartoContext(creds=creds)

CredentialsCredentials instance

  • base_url (str) – Base URL of CARTO user account. Cloud-based accounts should use the form https://{username} (e.g., for user eschbacher) whether on a personal or multi-user account. On-premises installation users should ask their admin.
  • api_key (str) – CARTO API key.
  • creds (Credentials) – A Credentials instance can be used in place of a base_url/api_key combination.
  • session (requests.Session, optional) – requests session. See requests documentation for more information.
  • verbose (bool, optional) – Output underlying process states (True), or suppress (False, default)

A CartoContext object that is authenticated against the user’s CARTO account.

Return type:



Create a CartoContext object:

import cartoframes
cc = cartoframes.CartoContext(BASEURL, APIKEY)
write(df, table_name, temp_dir=SYSTEM_TMP_PATH, overwrite=False, lnglat=None, encode_geom=False, geom_col=None, **kwargs)

Write a DataFrame to a CARTO table.


Write a pandas DataFrame to CARTO.

cc.write(df, 'brooklyn_poverty', overwrite=True)

Scrape an HTML table from Wikipedia and send to CARTO with content guessing to create a geometry from the country column. This uses a CARTO Import API param content_guessing parameter.

url = ''
# retrieve first HTML table from that page
df = pd.read_html(url, header=0)[0]
# send to carto, let it guess polygons based on the 'country'
#   column. Also set privacy to 'public'
cc.write(df, 'life_expectancy',
  • df (pandas.DataFrame) – DataFrame to write to table_name in user CARTO account
  • table_name (str) – Table to write df to in CARTO.
  • temp_dir (str, optional) – Directory for temporary storage of data that is sent to CARTO. Defaults are defined by appdirs.
  • overwrite (bool, optional) – Behavior for overwriting table_name if it exits on CARTO. Defaults to False.
  • lnglat (tuple, optional) – lng/lat pair that can be used for creating a geometry on CARTO. Defaults to None. In some cases, geometry will be created without specifying this. See CARTO’s Import API for more information.
  • encode_geom (bool, optional) – Whether to write geom_col to CARTO as the_geom.
  • geom_col (str, optional) – The name of the column where geometry information is stored. Used in conjunction with encode_geom.
  • **kwargs

    Keyword arguments to control write operations. Options are:

    • compression to set compression for files sent to CARTO. This will cause write speedups depending on the dataset. Options are None (no compression, default) or gzip.
    • Some arguments from CARTO’s Import API. See the params listed in the documentation for more information. For example, when using content_guessing=’true’, a column named ‘countries’ with country names will be used to generate polygons for each country. Another use is setting the privacy of a dataset. To avoid unintended consequences, avoid file, url, and other similar arguments.

If lnglat flag is set and the DataFrame has more than 100,000 rows, a BatchJobStatus instance is returned. Otherwise, None.

Return type:

BatchJobStatus or None


DataFrame indexes are changed to ordinary columns. CARTO creates an index called cartodb_id for every table that runs from 1 to the length of the DataFrame.

read(table_name, limit=None, index='cartodb_id', decode_geom=False)

Read a table from CARTO into a pandas DataFrames.

  • table_name (str) – Name of table in user’s CARTO account.
  • limit (int, optional) – Read only limit lines from table_name. Defaults to None, which reads the full table.
  • index (str, optional) – Not currently in use.
  • decode_geom (bool, optional) – Decodes CARTO’s geometries into a Shapely object that can be used, for example, in GeoPandas.

DataFrame representation of table_name from CARTO.

Return type:



import cartoframes
cc = cartoframes.CartoContext(BASEURL, APIKEY)
df ='acadia_biodiversity')

Delete a table in user’s CARTO account.

Parameters:table_name (str) – Name of table to delete
query(query, table_name=None, decode_geom=False)

Pull the result from an arbitrary SQL query from a CARTO account into a pandas DataFrame. Can also be used to perform database operations (creating/dropping tables, adding columns, updates, etc.).

  • query (str) – Query to run against CARTO user database. This data will then be converted into a pandas DataFrame.
  • table_name (str, optional) – If set, this will create a new table in the user’s CARTO account that is the result of the query. Defaults to None (no table created).
  • decode_geom (bool, optional) – Decodes CARTO’s geometries into a Shapely object that can be used, for example, in GeoPandas.

DataFrame representation of query supplied. Pandas data types are inferred from PostgreSQL data types. In the case of PostgreSQL date types, dates are attempted to be converted, but on failure a data type ‘object’ is used.

Return type:


map(layers=None, interactive=True, zoom=None, lat=None, lng=None, size=(800, 400), ax=None)

Produce a CARTO map visualizing data layers.


Create a map with two data layers, and one BaseMap layer:

import cartoframes
from cartoframes import Layer, BaseMap, styling
cc = cartoframes.CartoContext(BASEURL, APIKEY)[BaseMap(),
                     color={'column': 'simpson_index',
                            'scheme': styling.tealRose(7)}),
                     color={'column': 'bird_id',
                            'scheme': styling.vivid(10))],

Create a snapshot of a map at a specific zoom and center:'acadia_biodiversity',
  • layers (list, optional) –

    List of one or more of the following:

    • Layer: cartoframes Layer object for visualizing data from a CARTO table. See layer.Layer for all styling options.
    • BaseMap: Basemap for contextualizng data layers. See layer.BaseMap for all styling options.
    • QueryLayer: Layer from an arbitrary query. See layer.QueryLayer for all styling options.
  • interactive (bool, optional) – Defaults to True to show an interactive slippy map. Setting to False creates a static map.
  • zoom (int, optional) – Zoom level of map. Acceptable values are usually in the range 0 to 19. 0 has the entire earth on a single tile (256px square). Zoom 19 is the size of a city block. Must be used in conjunction with lng and lat. Defaults to a view to have all data layers in view.
  • lat (float, optional) – Latitude value for the center of the map. Must be used in conjunction with zoom and lng. Defaults to a view to have all data layers in view.
  • lng (float, optional) – Longitude value for the center of the map. Must be used in conjunction with zoom and lat. Defaults to a view to have all data layers in view.
  • size (tuple, optional) – List of pixel dimensions for the map. Format is (width, height). Defaults to (800, 400).
  • ax – matplotlib axis on which to draw the image. Only used when interactive is False.

Interactive maps are rendered as HTML in an iframe, while static maps are returned as matplotlib Axes objects or IPython Image.

Return type:

IPython.display.HTML or matplotlib Axes

data_boundaries(boundary=None, region=None, decode_geom=False, timespan=None, include_nonclipped=False)

Find all boundaries available for the world or a region. If boundary is specified, get all available boundary polygons for the region specified (if any). This method is espeically useful for getting boundaries for a region and, with and CartoContext.data_discovery, getting tables of geometries and the corresponding raw measures. For example, if you want to analyze how median income has changed in a region (see examples section for more).


Find all boundaries available for Australia. The columns geom_name gives us the name of the boundary and geom_id is what we need for the boundary argument.

import cartoframes
cc = cartoframes.CartoContext('base url', 'api key')
au_boundaries = cc.data_boundaries(region='Australia')
au_boundaries[['geom_name', 'geom_id']]

Get the boundaries for Australian Postal Areas and map them.

from cartoframes import Layer
au_postal_areas = cc.data_boundaries(boundary='au.geo.POA')
cc.write(au_postal_areas, 'au_postal_areas')'au_postal_areas'))

Get census tracts around Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA, and add median income from the US census. Without limiting the metadata, we get median income measures for each census in the Data Observatory.

cc = cartoframes.CartoContext('base url', 'api key')
# will return DataFrame with columns `the_geom` and `geom_ref`
tracts = cc.data_boundaries(
# write geometries to a CARTO table
cc.write(tracts, 'idaho_falls_tracts')
# gather metadata needed to look up median income
median_income_meta = cc.data_discovery(
    keywords='median income',
# get median income data and original table as new dataframe
idaho_falls_income =
# overwrite existing table with newly-enriched dataframe
  • boundary (str, optional) – Boundary identifier for the boundaries that are of interest. For example, US census tracts have a boundary ID of us.census.tiger.census_tract, and Brazilian Municipios have an ID of br.geo.municipios. Find IDs by running CartoContext.data_boundaries without any arguments, or by looking in the Data Observatory catalog.
  • region (str, optional) –

    Region where boundary information or, if boundary is specified, boundary polygons are of interest. region can be one of the following:

    • table name (str): Name of a table in user’s CARTO account
    • bounding box (list of float): List of four values (two lng/lat pairs) in the following order: western longitude, southern latitude, eastern longitude, and northern latitude. For example, Switzerland fits in [5.9559111595,45.8179931641,10.4920501709,47.808380127]
  • timespan (str, optional) – Specific timespan to get geometries from. Defaults to use the most recent. See the Data Observatory catalog for more information.
  • decode_geom (bool, optional) – Whether to return the geometries as Shapely objects or keep them encoded as EWKB strings. Defaults to False.
  • include_nonclipped (bool, optional) – Optionally include non-shoreline-clipped boundaries. These boundaries are the raw boundaries provided by, for example, US Census Tiger.

If boundary is specified, then all available boundaries and accompanying geom_refs in region (or the world if region is None or not specified) are returned. If boundary is not specified, then a DataFrame of all available boundaries in region (or the world if region is None)

Return type:


data_discovery(region, keywords=None, regex=None, time=None, boundaries=None, include_quantiles=False)

Discover Data Observatory measures. This method returns the full Data Observatory metadata model for each measure or measures that match the conditions from the inputs. The full metadata in each row uniquely defines a measure based on the timespan, geographic resolution, and normalization (if any). Read more about the metadata response in Data Observatory documentation.

Internally, this method finds all measures in region that match the conditions set in keywords, regex, time, and boundaries (if any of them are specified). Then, if boundaries is not specified, a geographical resolution for that measure will be chosen subject to the type of region specified:

  1. If region is a table name, then a geographical resolution that is roughly equal to region size / number of subunits.
  2. If region is a country name or bounding box, then a geographical resolution will be chosen roughly equal to region size / 500.

Since different measures are in some geographic resolutions and not others, different geographical resolutions for different measures are oftentimes returned.


To remove the guesswork in how geographical resolutions are selected, specify one or more boundaries in boundaries. See the boundaries section for each region in the Data Observatory catalog.

The metadata returned from this method can then be used to create raw tables or for augmenting an existing table from these measures using For the full Data Observatory catalog, visit When working with the metadata DataFrame returned from this method, be careful to only remove rows not columns as generally needs the full metadata.


Narrowing down a discovery query using the keywords, regex, and time filters is important for getting a manageable metadata set. Besides there being a large number of measures in the DO, a metadata response has acceptable combinations of measures with demonimators (normalization and density), and the same measure from other years.

For example, setting the region to be United States counties with no filter values set will result in many thousands of measures.


Get all European Union measures that mention freight.

meta = cc.data_discovery('European Union',
  • region (str or list of float) –

    Information about the region of interest. region can be one of three types:

    • region name (str): Name of region of interest. Acceptable values are limited to: ‘Australia’, ‘Brazil’, ‘Canada’, ‘European Union’, ‘France’, ‘Mexico’, ‘Spain’, ‘United Kingdom’, ‘United States’.
    • table name (str): Name of a table in user’s CARTO account with geometries. The region will be the bounding box of the table.


      If a table name is also a valid Data Observatory region name, the Data Observatory name will be chosen over the table.

    • bounding box (list of float): List of four values (two lng/lat pairs) in the following order: western longitude, southern latitude, eastern longitude, and northern latitude. For example, Switzerland fits in [5.9559111595,45.8179931641,10.4920501709,47.808380127]


    Geometry levels are generally chosen by subdividing the region into the next smallest administrative unit. To override this behavior, specify the boundaries flag. For example, set boundaries to 'us.census.tiger.census_tract' to choose US census tracts.

  • keywords (str or list of str, optional) – Keyword or list of keywords in measure description or name. Response will be matched on all keywords listed (boolean or).
  • regex (str, optional) – A regular expression to search the measure descriptions and names. Note that this relies on PostgreSQL’s case insensitive operator ~*. See PostgreSQL docs for more information.
  • boundaries (str or list of str, optional) – Boundary or list of boundaries that specify the measure resolution. See the boundaries section for each region in the Data Observatory catalog.
  • include_quantiles (bool, optional) – Include quantiles calculations which are a calculation of how a measure compares to all measures in the full dataset. Defaults to False. If True, quantiles columns will be returned for each column which has it pre-calculated.

A dataframe of the complete metadata model for specific measures based on the search parameters.

Return type:


  • ValueError – If region is a list and does not consist of four elements, or if region is not an acceptable region
  • CartoException – If region is not a table in user account
data(table_name, metadata, persist_as=None, how='the_geom')

Get an augmented CARTO dataset with Data Observatory measures. Use CartoContext.data_discovery to search for available measures, or see the full Data Observatory catalog. Optionally persist the data as a new table.


Get a DataFrame with Data Observatory measures based on the geometries in a CARTO table.

cc = cartoframes.CartoContext(BASEURL, APIKEY)
median_income = cc.data_discovery('transaction_events',
                                  regex='.*median income.*',
                                  time='2011 - 2015')
df ='transaction_events',

Pass in cherry-picked measures from the Data Observatory catalog. The rest of the metadata will be filled in, but it’s important to specify the geographic level as this will not show up in the column name.

median_income = [{'numer_id': 'us.census.acs.B19013001',
                  'geom_id': 'us.census.tiger.block_group',
                  'numer_timespan': '2011 - 2015'}]
df ='transaction_events', median_income)
  • table_name (str) – Name of table on CARTO account that Data Observatory measures are to be added to.
  • metadata (pandas.DataFrame) – List of all measures to add to table_name. See CartoContext.data_discovery outputs for a full list of metadata columns.
  • persist_as (str, optional) – Output the results of augmenting table_name to persist_as as a persistent table on CARTO. Defaults to None, which will not create a table.
  • how (str, optional) – Not fully implemented. Column name for identifying the geometry from which to fetch the data. Defaults to the_geom, which results in measures that are spatially interpolated (e.g., a neighborhood boundary’s population will be calculated from underlying census tracts). Specifying a column that has the geometry identifier (for example, GEOID for US Census boundaries), results in measures directly from the Census for that GEOID but normalized how it is specified in the metadata.

A DataFrame representation of table_name which has new columns for each measure in metadata.

Return type:


  • NameError – If the columns in table_name are in the suggested_name column of metadata.
  • ValueError – If metadata object is invalid or empty, or if the number of requested measures exceeds 50.
  • CartoException – If user account consumes all of Data Observatory quota

Map Layer Classes

class cartoframes.layer.BaseMap(source='voyager', labels='back', only_labels=False)

Layer object for adding basemaps to a cartoframes map.


Add a custom basemap to a cartoframes map.

import cartoframes
from cartoframes import BaseMap, Layer
cc = cartoframes.CartoContext(BASEURL, APIKEY)[BaseMap(source='light', labels='front'),
  • source (str, optional) – One of light or dark. Defaults to voyager. Basemaps come from
  • labels (str, optional) – One of back, front, or None. Labels on the front will be above the data layers. Labels on back will be underneath the data layers but on top of the basemap. Setting labels to None will only show the basemap.
  • only_labels (bool, optional) – Whether to show labels or not.
class cartoframes.layer.Layer(table_name, source=None, overwrite=False, time=None, color=None, size=None, tooltip=None, legend=None)

A cartoframes Data Layer based on a specific table in user’s CARTO database. This layer class is used for visualizing individual datasets with’s layers keyword argument.


import cartoframes
from cartoframes import QueryLayer, styling
cc = cartoframes.CartoContext(BASEURL, APIKEY)[Layer('fantastic_sql_table',
                     color={'column': 'mr_fox_sightings',
                            'scheme': styling.prism(10)})])
  • table_name (str) – Name of table in CARTO account
  • Styling – See QueryLayer for a full list of all arguments arguments for styling this map data layer.
  • source (pandas.DataFrame, optional) – Not currently implemented
  • overwrite (bool, optional) – Not currently implemented
class cartoframes.layer.QueryLayer(query, time=None, color=None, size=None, tooltip=None, legend=None)

cartoframes data layer based on an arbitrary query to the user’s CARTO database. This layer class is useful for offloading processing to the cloud to do some of the following:

  • Visualizing spatial operations using PostGIS and PostgreSQL, which is the database underlying CARTO
  • Performing arbitrary relational database queries (e.g., complex JOINs in SQL instead of in pandas)
  • Visualizing a subset of the data (e.g., SELECT * FROM table LIMIT 1000)

Used in the layers keyword in


Underlay a QueryLayer with a complex query below a layer from a table. The QueryLayer is colored by the calculated column abs_diff, and points are sized by the column i_measure.

import cartoframes
from cartoframes import QueryLayer, styling
cc = cartoframes.CartoContext(BASEURL, APIKEY)[QueryLayer('''
                          WITH i_cte As (
                                ST_Buffer(the_geom::geography, 500)::geometry As the_geom,
                              FROM interesting_data
                             WHERE date > '2017-04-19'
                             i.cartodb_id, i.the_geom,
                             ST_Transform(i.the_geom, 3857) AS the_geom_webmercator,
                             abs(i.measure - j.measure) AS abs_diff,
                             i.measure AS i_measure
                            FROM i_cte AS i
                            JOIN awesome_data AS j
                              ON i.event_id = j.event_id
                           WHERE j.measure IS NOT NULL
                             AND < '2017-04-29'
                          color={'column': 'abs_diff',
                                 'scheme': styling.sunsetDark(7)},
  • query (str) – Query to expose data on a map layer. At a minimum, a query needs to have the columns cartodb_id, the_geom, and the_geom_webmercator for the map to display. Read more about queries in CARTO’s docs.
  • time (dict or str, optional) –

    Time-based style to apply to layer.

    If time is a str, it must be the name of a column which has a data type of datetime or float.

    from cartoframes import QueryLayer
    l = QueryLayer('SELECT * FROM acadia_biodiversity',

    If time is a dict, the following keys are options:

    • column (str, required): Column for animating map, which must be of type datetime or float.
    • method (str, optional): Type of aggregation method for operating on Torque TileCubes. Must be one of avg, sum, or another PostgreSQL aggregate functions with a numeric output. Defaults to count.
    • cumulative (bool, optional): Whether to accumulate points over time (True) or not (False, default)
    • frames (int, optional): Number of frames in the animation. Defaults to 256.
    • duration (int, optional): Number of seconds in the animation. Defaults to 30.
    • trails (int, optional): Number of trails after the incidence of a point. Defaults to 2.
    from cartoframes import Layer
    l = Layer('acadia_biodiversity',
                  'column': 'bird_sighting_time',
                  'cumulative': True,
                  'frames': 128,
                  'duration': 15
  • color (dict or str, optional) –

    Color style to apply to map. For example, this can be used to change the color of all geometries in this layer, or to create a graduated color or choropleth map.

    If color is a str, there are two options:

    • A column name to style by to create, for example, a choropleth map if working with polygons. The default classification is quantiles for quantitative data and category for qualitative data.
    • A hex value or web color name.
    # color all geometries red (#F00)
    from cartoframes import Layer
    l = Layer('acadia_biodiversity',
    # color on 'num_eggs' (using defalt color scheme and quantification)
    l = Layer('acadia_biodiversity',

    If color is a dict, the following keys are options, with values described:

    • column (str): Column used for the basis of styling
    • scheme (dict, optional): Scheme such as styling.sunset(7) from the styling module of cartoframes that exposes CARTOColors. Defaults to mint scheme for quantitative data and bold for qualitative data. More control is given by using styling.scheme.

      If you wish to define a custom scheme outside of CARTOColors, it is recommended to use the styling.custom utility function.

    from cartoframes import QueryLayer, styling
    l = QueryLayer('SELECT * FROM acadia_biodiversity',
                       'column': 'simpson_index',
                       'scheme':, bin_method='equal')
  • size (dict or int, optional) –

    Size style to apply to point data.

    If size is an int, all points are sized by this value.

    from cartoframes import QueryLayer
    l = QueryLayer('SELECT * FROM acadia_biodiversity',

    If size is a str, this value is interpreted as a column, and the points are sized by the value in this column. The classification method defaults to quantiles, with a min size of 5, and a max size of 5. Use the dict input to override these values.

    from cartoframes import Layer
    l = Layer('acadia_biodiversity',

    If size is a dict, the follow keys are options, with values described as:

    • column (str): Column to base sizing of points on
    • bin_method (str, optional): Quantification method for dividing data range into bins. Must be one of the methods in BinMethod (excluding category).
    • bins (int, optional): Number of bins to break data into. Defaults to 5.
    • max (int, optional): Maximum point width (in pixels). Defaults to 25.
    • min (int, optional): Minimum point width (in pixels). Defaults to 5.
    from cartoframes import Layer
    l = Layer('acadia_biodiversity',
                  'column': 'num_eggs',
                  'max': 10,
                  'min': 2
  • tooltip (tuple, optional) – Not yet implemented.
  • legendNot yet implemented.
  • CartoException – If a column name used in any of the styling options is not in the data source in query (or table if using Layer).
  • ValueError – If styling using a dict and a column key is not present, or if the data type for a styling option is not supported. This is also raised if styling by a geometry column (i.e., the_geom or the_geom_webmercator). Futher, this is raised if requesting a time-based map with a data source that has geometries other than points.

Map Styling Functions

Styling module that exposes CARTOColors schemes. Read more about CARTOColors in its GitHub repository.

class cartoframes.styling.BinMethod

Data classification methods used for the styling of data on maps.


str – Quantiles classification for quantitative data


str – Jenks classification for quantitative data


str – Head/Tails classification for quantitative data


str – Equal Interval classification for quantitative data


str – Category classification for qualitative data


dict – The TurboCarto mappings

cartoframes.styling.get_scheme_cartocss(column, scheme_info)

Get TurboCARTO CartoCSS based on input parameters

cartoframes.styling.custom(colors, bins=None, bin_method='quantiles')

Create a custom scheme.

  • colors (list of str) – List of hex values for styling data
  • bins (int, optional) – Number of bins to style by. If not given, the number of colors will be used.
  • bin_method (str, optional) – Classification method. One of the values in BinMethod. Defaults to quantiles, which only works with quantitative data.
cartoframes.styling.scheme(name, bins, bin_method='quantiles')

Return a custom scheme based on CARTOColors.

  • name (str) – Name of a CARTOColor.
  • bins (int or iterable) – If an int, the number of bins for classifying data. CARTOColors have 7 bins max for quantitative data, and 11 max for qualitative data. If bins is a list, it is the upper range for classifying data. E.g., bins can be of the form (10, 20, 30, 40, 50).
  • bin_method (str, optional) – One of methods in BinMethod. Defaults to quantiles. If bins is an interable, then that is the bin method that will be used and this will be ignored.


Input types are particularly sensitive in this function, and little feedback is given for errors. name and bin_method arguments are case-sensitive.

cartoframes.styling.burg(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors Burg quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.burgYl(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors BurgYl quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.redOr(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors RedOr quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.orYel(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors OrYel quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.peach(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors Peach quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.pinkYl(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors PinkYl quantitative scheme, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors Mint quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.bluGrn(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors BluGrn quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.darkMint(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors DarkMint quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.emrld(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors Emrld quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.bluYl(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors BluYl quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.teal(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors Teal quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.tealGrn(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors TealGrn quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.purp(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors Purp quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.purpOr(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors PurpOr quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.sunset(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors Sunset quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.magenta(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors Magenta quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.sunsetDark(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors SunsetDark quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.brwnYl(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors BrwnYl quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.armyRose(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors ArmyRose divergent quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.fall(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors Fall divergent quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.geyser(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors Geyser divergent quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.temps(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors Temps divergent quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.tealRose(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors TealRose divergent quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.tropic(bins, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors Tropic divergent quantitative scheme, bin_method='quantiles')

CARTOColors Earth divergent quantitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.antique(bins, bin_method='category')

CARTOColors Antique qualitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.bold(bins, bin_method='category')

CARTOColors Bold qualitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.pastel(bins, bin_method='category')

CARTOColors Pastel qualitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.prism(bins, bin_method='category')

CARTOColors Prism qualitative scheme, bin_method='category')

CARTOColors Safe qualitative scheme

cartoframes.styling.vivid(bins, bin_method='category')

CARTOColors Vivid qualitative scheme


class cartoframes.context.BatchJobStatus(carto_context, job)

Status of a write or query operation. Read more at Batch SQL API docs about responses and how to interpret them.


Poll for a job’s status if you’ve caught the BatchJobStatus instance.

import time
job = cc.write(df, 'new_table',
               lnglat=('lng_col', 'lat_col'))
while True:
    curr_status = job.status()['status']
    if curr_status in ('done', 'failed', 'canceled', 'unknown', ):

Create a BatchJobStatus instance if you have a job_id output from a cc.write operation.

>>> from cartoframes import CartoContext, BatchJobStatus
>>> cc = CartoContext(username='...', api_key='...')
>>> cc.write(df, 'new_table', lnglat=('lng', 'lat'))
'BatchJobStatus(job_id='job-id-string', ...)'
>>> batch_job = BatchJobStatus(cc, 'job-id-string')
job_id (str): Job ID of the Batch SQL API job last_status (str): Status of job_id job when last polled created_at (str): Time and date when job was created
  • carto_context (carto.CartoContext) – CartoContext instance
  • job (dict or str) – If a dict, job status dict returned after sending a Batch SQL API request. If str, a Batch SQL API job id.

return current status of job


Checks the current status of job job_id

Returns:Status and time it was updated
Return type:dict
Warns:UserWarning – If the job failed, a warning is raised with information about the failure

Credentials Management

Credentials management for cartoframes usage.

class cartoframes.credentials.Credentials(creds=None, key=None, username=None, base_url=None, cred_file=None)

Credentials class for managing and storing user CARTO credentials. The arguments are listed in order of precedence: Credentials instances are first, key and base_url/username are taken next, and config_file (if given) is taken last. If no arguments are passed, then there will be an attempt to retrieve credentials from a previously saved session. One of the above scenarios needs to be met to successfully instantiate a Credentials object.

  • creds (cartoframes.Credentials, optional) – Credentials instance
  • key (str, optional) – API key of user’s CARTO account
  • username (str, optional) – Username of CARTO account
  • base_url (str, optional) – Base URL used for API calls. This is usually of the form for user eschbacher. On premises installations (and others) have a different URL pattern.
  • cred_file (str, optional) – Pull credentials from a stored file. If this and all other args are not entered, Credentials will attempt to load a user config credentials file that was previously set with Credentials(…).save().

RuntimeError – If not enough credential information is passed and no stored credentials file is found, this error will be raised.


from cartoframes import Credentials, CartoContext
creds = Credentials(key='abcdefg', username='eschbacher')
cc = CartoContext(creds=creds)

Return or set base_url.

Parameters:base_url (str, optional) – If set, updates the base_url. Otherwise returns current base_url.


This does not update the username attribute. Separately update the username with Credentials.username or update base_url and username at the same time with Credentials.set.


>>> from cartoframes import Credentials
# load credentials saved in previous session
>>> creds = Credentials()
# returns current base_url
>>> creds.base_url()
# updates base_url with new value
>>> creds.base_url('new_base_url')

Deletes the credentials file specified in config_file. If no file is specified, it deletes the default user credential file.

Parameters:config_file (str) – Path to configuration file. Defaults to delete the user default location if None.


To see if there is a default user credential file stored, do the following:

>>> creds = Credentials()
>>> print(creds)
Credentials(username=eschbacher, key=abcdefg,

Return or set API key.

Parameters:key (str, optional) – If set, updates the API key, otherwise returns current API key.


>>> from cartoframes import Credentials
# load credentials saved in previous session
>>> creds = Credentials()
# returns current API key
>>> creds.key()
# updates API key with new value
>>> creds.key('new_api_key')

Saves current user credentials to user directory.

Parameters:config_loc (str, optional) – Location where credentials are to be stored. If no argument is provided, it will be send to the default location.


from cartoframes import Credentials
creds = Credentials(username='eschbacher', key='abcdefg')  # save to default location
set(key=None, username=None, base_url=None)

Update the credentials of a Credentials instance instead with new values.

  • key (str) – API key of user account. Defaults to previous value if not specified.
  • username (str) – User name of account. This parameter is optional if base_url is not specified, but defaults to the previous value if not set.
  • base_url (str) – Base URL of user account. This parameter is optional if username is specified and on CARTO’s cloud-based account. Generally of the form for cloud-based accounts. If on-prem or otherwise, contact your admin.


from cartoframes import Credentials
# load credentials saved in previous session
creds = Credentials()
# set new API key
# save new creds to default user config directory


If the username is specified but the base_url is not, the base_url will be updated to https://<username>


Return or set username.

Parameters:username (str, optional) – If set, updates the username. Otherwise returns current username.


This does not update the base_url attribute. Use Credentials.set to have that updated with username.


>>> from cartoframes import Credentials
# load credentials saved in previous session
>>> creds = Credentials()
# returns current username
>>> creds.username()
# updates username with new value
>>> creds.username('new_username')

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